閱讀滿分的關鍵祕密 Part 2:學會Skim

哈囉同學晚安,

我是SK2的Rosa,最近於每週顧問時間中,發現許多同學的閱讀問題在於練習做得不夠確實,導致常常即使答案選對,也耗費了許久的時間。區區一題細節題,也要兩分鐘才有辦法確定答案。

這其實是跟你閱讀的基本功夠不夠扎實有關,而閱讀的基本功有兩樣很重要的能力,scan與skim。當你有辦法自由運用scan以及skim時,閱讀要考28分,甚至是滿分,便完全不會是問題。

上次我們討論過閱讀裡面重要的技巧—scan(瀏覽),

今天讓我們來看第二種閱讀高分必備的技巧—skim(略讀)。
之前曾分享過略讀的六大技巧,不清楚skim的同學,建議讀讀以下的文章。


今天我們來看要如何在練習托福時運用skim的能力解題。

首先,讓我們先來複習一下到底什麼是skim。
skim是指略讀。目的為快速地看懂段落大意、掌握段落架構。

什麼時候要使用skim呢?當問題問的是段落結構、大意時,就能夠使用skim簡化訊息,縮短閱讀時間,例如:考organization的purpose 題,inference題,等。

要如何skim?
閱讀時,請你抓每句話的S. V. O.,也就是主詞、動詞以及受詞—意及在英文裡面最重要的訊息。假如下一句話的訊息重複,那麼我仍然只記得上一句話的訊息。如果下一句話為細節,一樣跳過不看,只記得同樣的訊息。


注意:由於skim的目的在於了解每句話的關聯性,所以在skim時,不會記任何細節,遇到細節時,可以跳過,只要對於細節的位置有些印象,以及了解細節是跟著哪個main idea就可以了。


skim的關鍵在於,看完整段後,你記得的訊息是否夠少?因為訊息少,才容易記得,且記得清楚。

如何知道你是否有在正確使用skim呢?
很好的判斷標準為當你看完了整段後,需不需要再看一次。
假如你發現你每次都要讀兩遍才懂整段意思,便代表你記太多訊息了。那麼便要加強skim的能力。

當你可以很快辨認題型,了解什麼時候該使用skim,並且練習skim的能力,便能夠在45秒內答對一題purpose題,兩分鐘內答對高難度的題目(如:inference題)。


現在讓我們來用TPO練習skim的能力吧!

Which of the following best describes how paragraph 1 is organized?

首先看到題目問你的是organization,要的是整段結構的訊息,便決定要用skim來閱讀。

請你準備好紙筆,記錄下看完整段,你覺得重要的訊息。

The city of Memphis, located on the Nile near the modern city of Cairo, was founded around 3100 B.C. as the first capital of a recently united Egypt. The choice of Memphis by Egypt's first kings reflects the site's strategic importance. First, and most obvious, the apex of the Nile River delta was a politically opportune location for the state' s administrative center, standing between the united lands of Upper and Lower Egypt and offering ready access to both parts of the country. The older predynastic (pre-3100BC) centers of power, This and Hierakonpolis, were too remote from the vast expanse of the delta, which had been incorporated into the unified state. Only a city within easy reach of both the Nile valley to the south and the more spread out, difficult terrain to the north could provide the necessary political control that the rulers of early dynastic Egypt (roughly 3000-2600 B.C.) required.

這段我會怎麼看呢?

The city of Memphis, located on the Nile near the modern city of Cairo, was founded around 3100 B.C. as the first capital of a recently united Egypt.(M這個城市的成立) The choice of Memphis by Egypt's first kings reflects the site's strategic importance.(M反映地點的重要性,我會預期接下來解釋地點為何重要) First, and most obvious, the apex of the Nile River delta was a politically opportune location for the state' s administrative center, standing between the united lands of Upper and Lower Egypt and offering ready access to both parts of the country.(看到轉折詞First,我會知道這是第一個原因。跟政治的位置有關)The older predynastic (pre-3100BC) centers of power, This and Hierakonpolis, were too remote from the vast expanse of the delta, which had been incorporated into the unified state.(還在解釋政治的位置為什麼好。) Only a city within easy reach of both the Nile valley to the south and the more spread out, difficult terrain to the north could provide the necessary political control that the rulers of early dynastic Egypt (roughly 3000-2600 B.C.) required.(一樣在解釋M城市是良好政治位置的事。)

看完後,我只記得M城市為良好的政治位置,這是選擇M的第一個原因。因為看到了First,我會期待後面的段落講到第二個原因。

此時,對整段有了清楚的想法後,再去做題目。

3. Which of the following best describes how paragraph 1 is organized?
A) Two simultaneous developments are described, as well as the reasons why neither one would have occurred without the other.
B)     A hypothesis is presented, and then points in favor of that hypothesis as well as points against it are discussed.
C)    A major event is described, and then the most obvious effects of that event are presented.
D)  A decision is described, and then one likely motivation for that decision is presented.

這樣用skim簡化訊息後,答案是不是就很好選了呢?


以下是擷取自TPO32的一個段落,讓我們來試試功力,看你有沒有學到精髓吧!

請試著使用skim閱讀,並且觀察看完一個段落後,腦海中留下什麼印象。

Question 22 Which of the following best describes the relationship between paragraphs 3 and 4 in the passage?

Much population movement involved the opening up of new lands for rice cultivation. Two things made this possible and encouraged it to happen. First, the opening of the kingdom to the full force of international trade by the Bowring Treaty (1855) rapidly encouraged economic specialization in the growing of rice, mainly to feed the rice-deficient portions of Asia (India and China in particular). The average annual volume of rice exported from Siam grew from under 60 million kilograms per year in the late 1850s to more than 660 million kilograms per year at the turn of the century; and over the same period the average price per kilograms doubled. During the same period, the area planted in rice increased from about 230,000 acres to more than 350,000 acres. This growth was achieved as the result of the collective decisions of thousands of peasant families to expand the amount of land they cultivated, clear and plant new land, or adopt more intensive methods of agriculture.

They were able to do so because of our second consideration. They were relatively freer than they had been half a century earlier. Over the course of the Fifth Reign (1868-1910), the ties that bound rural people to the aristocracy and local ruling elites were greatly reduced. Peasants now paid a tax on individuals instead of being required to render labor service to the government. Under these conditions, it made good sense to thousands of peasant families to in effect work full-time at what they had been able to do only part-time previously because of the requirement to work for the government: grow rice for the marketplace.


我會這樣閱讀。

Much population movement involved the opening up of new lands for rice cultivation.(整段的Main idea為new land for rice) Two things made this possible and encouraged it to happen.(我會期待作者要講解兩個原因。) First, the opening of the kingdom to the full force of international trade by the Bowring Treaty (1855) rapidly encouraged economic specialization in the growing of rice, mainly to feed the rice-deficient portions of Asia (India and China in particular).(原因一:international trade導致economic specialization) The average annual volume of rice exported from Siam grew from under 60 million kilograms per year in the late 1850s to more than 660 million kilograms per year at the turn of the century; and over the same period the average price per kilograms doubled. During the same period, the area planted in rice increased from about 230,000 acres to more than 350,000 acres. This growth was achieved as the result of the collective decisions of thousands of peasant families to expand the amount of land they cultivated, clear and plant new land, or adopt more intensive methods of agriculture.(以上這幾句話的訊息都跟economic specialization有關,所以我視為細節,不記。假如考細節題,再回來細讀)

They were able to do so because of our second consideration.(整段的Main idea為new land for rice 原因二) They were relatively freer than they had been half a century earlier.(更自由) Over the course of the Fifth Reign (1868-1910), the ties that bound rural people to the aristocracy and local ruling elites were greatly reduced. (跟自由有關,一樣的訊息,跳過)Peasants now paid a tax on individuals instead of being required to render labor service to the government. (講如何更自由的細節)Under these conditions, it made good sense to thousands of peasant families to in effect work full-time at what they had been able to do only part-time previously because of the requirement to work for the government: grow rice for the marketplace.(結論句,回到了主題,因為更自由,所以更有時間工作生米,造成new land for rice)

由於這題是問我兩個段落的關聯性,其實我直接瞄每段前幾行,了解架構就可以了,要更簡單的話,可以這麼看。


Much population movement involved the opening up of new lands for rice cultivation. Two things made this possible and encouraged it to happen. First, the opening of the kingdom to the full force of international trade by the Bowring Treaty (1855) rapidly encouraged economic specialization in the growing of rice, mainly to feed the rice-deficient portions of Asia (India and China in particular). The average annual volume of rice exported from Siam grew from under 60 million kilograms per year in the late 1850s to more than 660 million kilograms per year at the turn of the century; and over the same period the average price per kilograms doubled. During the same period, the area planted in rice increased from about 230,000 acres to more than 350,000 acres. This growth was achieved as the result of the collective decisions of thousands of peasant families to expand the amount of land they cultivated, clear and plant new land, or adopt more intensive methods of agriculture.

They were able to do so because of our second consideration. They were relatively freer than they had been half a century earlier. Over the course of the Fifth Reign (1868-1910), the ties that bound rural people to the aristocracy and local ruling elites were greatly reduced. Peasants now paid a tax on individuals instead of being required to render labor service to the government. Under these conditions, it made good sense to thousands of peasant families to in effect work full-time at what they had been able to do only part-time previously because of the requirement to work for the government: grow rice for the marketplace.

如此,是否很清楚,第一段講現象(new land for rice)的第一個原因,第二個段落講第二個原因。

有清楚的想法後,就能夠選答案囉!

  1. Paragraph 4 provides further evidence of the economic growth of Siam discussed in paragraph 3.
  2. Paragraph 4 continues the discussion begun in paragraph 3 of farming improvements that led to economic growth.
  3. Paragraph 4 examines a particular effect of the Bowring Treaty mentioned in paragraph 3.
  4. Paragraph 4 discusses the second of two factors that contributed to the expansion of rice farming mentioned in paragraph 3.







選得出答案嗎?沒錯,答案是D。

閱讀的迷思:常常有同學會認為閱讀要好,必須要100%理解全部文意,又或說是種從小養成的強迫症,在閱讀時,常會不自覺地想要理解所有細節。

但事實上托福從來沒有要考你短時間內100%理解文意、記得所有細節的能力,而是考你短時間內掌握作者目的、文章架構的能力

因此,不要再一個字一個字慢慢看,慢慢翻譯了,考試時可沒那麼多時間。
請你開始接受只需要理解40%文意就能夠答題了,前提是那40%你理解並記住的訊息為作者目的、文章結構而不是一堆瑣碎的單字以及片語。

Skim的小技巧:在閱讀時,要懂得跳過不會的單字,仍然看懂句意。會跳過單字或代入單字,閱讀速度才會快。

最後做個總結,使用skim的四步驟:

STEP 1:看題目,假如你判斷題目在考你段落結構、兩段的關聯性、某個段落在整篇文章所扮演的角色,那麼便使用skim閱讀。

STEP 2: 使用skim簡化段落中的訊息。

STEP 3: 歸納一下看完整段後的重點。
*這個步驟非常重要,重點越少越好,才容易記得,也才好選答案。

STEP 4: 使用剛歸納的重點,選答案。

同學每天花一個時段好好練習閱讀能力,不出兩個禮拜,你就會發現閱讀速度變快了!

假如你發現你第一次學skim,速度實在是快不起來,推薦你找到以下這本書做練習,有許多同學表示,練了之後覺得閱讀能力提升了。